Sunday, December 4

Javascript Basics for freshers

JavaScript If...Else Statements

Conditional Statements

Very often when you write code, you want to perform different actions for different decisions. You can use conditional statements in your code to do this.
In JavaScript we have the following conditional statements:
  • if statement - use this statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true
  • if...else statement - use this statement to execute some code if the condition is true and another code if the condition is false
  • if...else if....else statement - use this statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed
  • switch statement - use this statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed

If Statement

Use the if statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true.

Syntax

if (condition)
  {
  code to be executed if condition is true
  }
Note that if is written in lowercase letters. Using uppercase letters (IF) will generate a JavaScript error!

Example

<script type="text/javascript">
//Write a "Good morning" greeting if
//the time is less than 10

var d=new Date();
var time=d.getHours();

if (time<10)
  {
  document.write("<b>Good morning</b>");
  }
</script>


Notice that there is no ..else.. in this syntax. You tell the browser to execute some code only if the specified condition is true.

If...else Statement

Use the if....else statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if the condition is not true.

Syntax

if (condition)
  {
  code to be executed if condition is true
  }
else
  {
  code to be executed if condition is not true
  }

Example

<script type="text/javascript">
//If the time is less than 10, you will get a "Good morning" greeting.
//Otherwise you will get a "Good day" greeting.

var d = new Date();
var time = d.getHours();

if (time < 10)
  {
  document.write("Good morning!");
  }
else
  {
  document.write("Good day!");
  }
</script>




If...else if...else Statement

Use the if....else if...else statement to select one of several blocks of code to be executed.

Syntax

if (condition1)
  {
  code to be executed if condition1 is true
  }
else if (condition2)
  {
  code to be executed if condition2 is true
  }
else
  {
  code to be executed if neither condition1 nor condition2 is true
  }

Example

<script type="text/javascript">
var d = new Date()
var time = d.getHours()
if (time<10)
  {
  document.write("<b>Good morning</b>");
  }
else if (time>=10 && time<16)
  {
  document.write("<b>Good day</b>");
  }
else
  {
  document.write("<b>Hello Shibashish!</b>");
  }
</script>

The JavaScript Switch Statement

Use the switch statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed.

Syntax

switch(n)
{
case 1:
  execute code block 1
  break;
case 2:
  execute code block 2
  break;
default:
  code to be executed if n is different from case 1 and 2
}
This is how it works: First we have a single expression n (most often a variable), that is evaluated once. The value of the expression is then compared with the values for each case in the structure. If there is a match, the block of code associated with that case is executed. Use break to prevent the code from running into the next case automatically.

Example

<script type="text/javascript">
//You will receive a different greeting based
//on what day it is. Note that Sunday=0,
//Monday=1, Tuesday=2, etc.

var d=new Date();
var theDay=d.getDay();
switch (theDay)
{
case 5:
  document.write("Finally Friday");
  break;
case 6:
  document.write("Super Saturday");
  break;
case 0:
  document.write("Sleepy Sunday");
  break;
default:
  document.write("I'm looking forward to this weekend!");
}
</script> 

JavaScript Popup Boxes

Alert Box

An alert box is often used if you want to make sure information comes through to the user.
When an alert box pops up, the user will have to click "OK" to proceed.

Syntax

alert("sometext");

Example

<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
function show_alert()
{
alert("I am an alert box!");
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<input type="button" onclick="show_alert()" value="Show alert box" />

</body>
</html>




Confirm Box

A confirm box is often used if you want the user to verify or accept something.
When a confirm box pops up, the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed.
If the user clicks "OK", the box returns true. If the user clicks "Cancel", the box returns false.

Syntax

confirm("sometext");

Example

<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
function show_confirm()
{
var r=confirm("Press a button");
if (r==true)
  {
  alert("You pressed OK!");
  }
else
  {
  alert("You pressed Cancel!");
  }
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<input type="button" onclick="show_confirm()" value="Show confirm box" />

</body>
</html>




Prompt Box

A prompt box is often used if you want the user to input a value before entering a page.
When a prompt box pops up, the user will have to click either "OK" or "Cancel" to proceed after entering an input value.
If the user clicks "OK" the box returns the input value. If the user clicks "Cancel" the box returns null.

Syntax

prompt("sometext","defaultvalue");

Example

<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
function show_prompt()
{
var name=prompt("Please enter your name","Harry Potter");
if (name!=null && name!="")
  {
  document.write("Hello " + name + "! How are you today?");
  }
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<input type="button" onclick="show_prompt()" value="Show prompt box" />

</body>
</html>

Alert box with line breaks
<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
function disp_alert()
{
alert("Hello again! This is how we" + '\n' + "add line breaks to an alert box!");
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<input type="button" onclick="disp_alert()" value="Display alert box" />

</body>
</html>

How to Define a Function

Syntax

function functionname(var1,var2,...,varX)
{
some code
}
The parameters var1, var2, etc. are variables or values passed into the function. The { and the } defines the start and end of the function.
Note: A function with no parameters must include the parentheses () after the function name.
Note: Do not forget about the importance of capitals in JavaScript! The word function must be written in lowercase letters, otherwise a JavaScript error occurs! Also note that you must call a function with the exact same capitals as in the function name.


JavaScript Function Example

Example

<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
function displaymessage()
{
alert("Hello World!");
}
</script>
</head>

<body>
<form>
<input type="button" value="Click me!" onclick="displaymessage()" />
</form>
</body>
</html>


If the line: alert("Hello world!!") in the example above had not been put within a function, it would have been executed as soon as the page was loaded. Now, the script is not executed before a user hits the input button. The function displaymessage() will be executed if the input button is clicked.
You will learn more about JavaScript events in the JS Events chapter.

The return Statement

The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function.
So, functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement.
The example below returns the product of two numbers (a and b):

Example

<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
function product(a,b)
{
return a*b;
}
</script>
</head>

<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
document.write(product(4,3));
</script>

</body>
</html>
How to pass a variable to a function, and use the variable in the function.
<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
function myfunction(txt)
{
alert(txt);
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<form>
<input type="button" onclick="myfunction('Hello')" value="Call function">
</form>

<p>By pressing the button above, a function will be called with "Hello" as a parameter. The function will alert the parameter.</p>

</body>
</html>

JavaScript For Loop

Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times, or while a specified condition is true.

JavaScript Loops

Often when you write code, you want the same block of code to run over and over again in a row. Instead of adding several almost equal lines in a script we can use loops to perform a task like this.
In JavaScript, there are two different kind of loops:
  • for - loops through a block of code a specified number of times
  • while - loops through a block of code while a specified condition is true

The for Loop

The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run.

Syntax

for (variable=startvalue;variable<=endvalue;variable=variable+increment)
{
code to be executed
}

Example

The example below defines a loop that starts with i=0. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than, or equal to 5. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs.
Note: The increment parameter could also be negative, and the <= could be any comparing statement.

Example

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
var i=0;
for (i=0;i<=5;i++)
{
document.write("The number is " + i);
document.write("<br />");
}
</script>
</body>
</html>
Loop through the six different HTML headings

 <html>
<body>

<script type="text/javascript">
for (i = 1; i <= 6; i++)
{
document.write("<h" + i + ">This is heading " + i);
document.write("</h" + i + ">");
}
</script>

</body>
</html>

JavaScript While Loop

Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times, or while a specified condition is true.

The while Loop

The while loop loops through a block of code while a specified condition is true.

Syntax

while (variable<=endvalue)
  {
  code to be executed
  }
Note: The <= could be any comparing operator.

Example

The example below defines a loop that starts with i=0. The loop will continue to run as long as i is less than, or equal to 5. i will increase by 1 each time the loop runs:

Example

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
var i=0;
while (i<=5)
  {
  document.write("The number is " + i);
  document.write("<br />");
  i++;
  }
</script>
</body>
</html>




The do...while Loop

The do...while loop is a variant of the while loop. This loop will execute the block of code ONCE, and then it will repeat the loop as long as the specified condition is true.

Syntax

do
  {
  code to be executed
 
}
while (variable<=endvalue);

Example

The example below uses a do...while loop. The do...while loop will always be executed at least once, even if the condition is false, because the statements are executed before the condition is tested:

Example

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
var i=0;
do
  {
  document.write("The number is " + i);
  document.write("<br />");
  i++;
  }
while (i<=5);
</script>
</body>
</html>

 

JavaScript Break and Continue Statements


The break Statement

The break statement will break the loop and continue executing the code that follows after the loop (if any).

Example

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
var i=0;
for (i=0;i<=10;i++)
  {
  if (i==3)
    {
    break;
    }
  document.write("The number is " + i);
  document.write("<br />");
  }
</script>
</body>
</html>




The continue Statement

The continue statement will break the current loop and continue with the next value.

Example

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
var i=0
for (i=0;i<=10;i++)
  {
  if (i==3)
    {
    continue;
    }
  document.write("The number is " + i);
  document.write("<br />");
  }
</script>
</body>
</html>

JavaScript For...In Statement


JavaScript For...In Statement

The for...in statement loops through the properties of an object.

Syntax

for (variable in object)
  {
  code to be executed
  }
Note: The code in the body of the for...in loop is executed once for each property.

Example

Looping through the properties of an object:

Example

var person={fname:"shibashish",lname:"mohanty",age:23};

for (x in person)
{
document.write(person[x] + " ");
}

JavaScript Events


Events are actions that can be detected by JavaScript.

Acting to an Event

The example below displays the date when a button is clicked:

Example

<html>

<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
function displayDate()
{
document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML=Date();
}
</script>
</head>

<body>

<h1>This is shibashish</h1>

<p id="demo"></p>

<button type="button" onclick="displayDate()">Display Date</button>

</body>
</html>




Events

By using JavaScript, we have the ability to create dynamic web pages. Events are actions that can be detected by JavaScript.
Every element on a web page has certain events which can trigger a JavaScript. For example, we can use the onClick event of a button element to indicate that a function will run when a user clicks on the button. We define the events in the HTML tags.
Examples of events:
  • A mouse click
  • A web page or an image loading
  • Mousing over a hot spot on the web page
  • Selecting an input field in an HTML form
  • Submitting an HTML form
  • A keystroke
Note: Events are normally used in combination with functions, and the function will not be executed before the event occurs!

 

onLoad and onUnload

The onLoad and onUnload events are triggered when the user enters or leaves the page.
The onLoad event is often used to check the visitor's browser type and browser version, and load the proper version of the web page based on the information.
Both the onLoad and onUnload events are also often used to deal with cookies that should be set when a user enters or leaves a page. For example, you could have a popup asking for the user's name upon his first arrival to your page. The name is then stored in a cookie. Next time the visitor arrives at your page, you could have another popup saying something like: "Welcome John Doe!".

onFocus, onBlur and onChange

The onFocus, onBlur and onChange events are often used in combination with validation of form fields.
Below is an example of how to use the onChange event. The checkEmail() function will be called whenever the user changes the content of the field:
<input type="text" size="30" id="email" onchange="checkEmail()">


onSubmit

The onSubmit event is used to validate ALL form fields before submitting it.
Below is an example of how to use the onSubmit event. The checkForm() function will be called when the user clicks the submit button in the form. If the field values are not accepted, the submit should be cancelled. The function checkForm() returns either true or false. If it returns true the form will be submitted, otherwise the submit will be cancelled:
<form method="post" action="xxx.htm" onsubmit="return checkForm()">


onMouseOver

The onmouseover event can be used to trigger a function when the user mouses over an HTML element:
Example:-(Just change your image src which you have in your solution and enjoy this demo)
<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
    function writeText(txt) {
        document.getElementById("desc").innerHTML = txt;
    }
</script>
</head>

<body>
<img src ="images/img5-thumb.jpg" width ="145" height ="126" alt="shibuna"
        usemap="#planetmap" />

<map name="planetmap">
<area shape ="rect" coords ="0,0,82,126"
onmouseover="writeText('i am shibashish trying my level best for achieve my goal.')"
href ="sun.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Sun" />

<area shape ="circle" coords ="90,58,3"
onmouseover="writeText('i am shibashish trying my level best for achieve my position.')"
href ="mercur.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Ashish" />

<area shape ="circle" coords ="124,58,8"
onmouseover="writeText('i am shibashish trying my level best for achieve my carrier.')"
href ="venus.htm" target ="_blank" alt="shibashish" />
</map>

<p id="desc">Just change your image src which you have in your solution and enjoy this demo</p>

</body>
</html>

JavaScript Try...Catch Statement

 

The try...catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors.

JavaScript - Catching Errors

When browsing Web pages on the internet, we all have seen a JavaScript alert box telling us there is a runtime error and asking "Do you wish to debug?". Error message like this may be useful for developers but not for users. When users see errors, they often leave the Web page.
This chapter will teach you how to catch and handle JavaScript error messages, so you don't lose your audience.

The try...catch Statement

The try...catch statement allows you to test a block of code for errors. The try block contains the code to be run, and the catch block contains the code to be executed if an error occurs.

Syntax

try
  {
  //Run some code here
  }
catch(err)
  {
  //Handle errors here
  }
Note that try...catch is written in lowercase letters. Using uppercase letters will generate a JavaScript error!

Examples

The example below is supposed to alert "Welcome guest!" when the button is clicked. However, there's a typo in the message() function. alert() is misspelled as adddlert(). A JavaScript error occurs. The catch block catches the error and executes a custom code to handle it. The code displays a custom error message informing the user what happened:

Example

<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
var txt="";
function message()
{
try
  {
  adddlert("Welcome guest!");
  }
catch(err)
  {
  txt="There was an error on this page.\n\n";
  txt+="Error description: " + err.description + "\n\n";
  txt+="Click OK to continue.\n\n";
  alert(txt);
  }
}
</script>
</head>

<body>
<input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" />
</body>

</html>


The next example uses a confirm box to display a custom message telling users they can click OK to continue viewing the page or click Cancel to go to the homepage. If the confirm method returns false, the user clicked Cancel, and the code redirects the user. If the confirm method returns true, the code does nothing:

Example

<html>
<head>
<script type="text/javascript">
var txt="";
function message()
{
try
  {
  adddlert("Welcome guest!");
  }
catch(err)
  {
  txt="There was an error on this page.\n\n";
  txt+="Click OK to continue viewing this page,\n";
  txt+="or Cancel to return to the home page.\n\n";
  if(!confirm(txt))
    {
    document.location.href="http://www.w3schools.com/";
    }
  }
}
</script>
</head>

<body>
<input type="button" value="View message" onclick="message()" />
</body>

</html>

 

JavaScript Throw Statement

The throw statement allows you to create an exception.

The Throw Statement

The throw statement allows you to create an exception. If you use this statement together with the try...catch statement, you can control program flow and generate accurate error messages.

Syntax

throw exception
The exception can be a string, integer, Boolean or an object.
Note that throw is written in lowercase letters. Using uppercase letters will generate a JavaScript error!

Example

The example below determines the value of a variable called x. If the value of x is higher than 10, lower than 0, or not a number, we are going to throw an error. The error is then caught by the catch argument and the proper error message is displayed:

Example

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">
var x=prompt("Enter a number between 0 and 10:","");
try
  {
  if(x>10)
    {
    throw "Err1";
    }
  else if(x<0)
    {
    throw "Err2";
    }
  else if(isNaN(x))
    {
    throw "Err3";
    }
  }
catch(er)
  {
  if(er=="Err1")
    {
    alert("Error! The value is too high");
    }
  if(er=="Err2")
    {
    alert("Error! The value is too low");
    }
  if(er=="Err3")
    {
    alert("Error! The value is not a number");
    }
  }
</script>
</body>
</html>

JavaScript Special Characters

 

In JavaScript you can add special characters to a text string by using the backslash sign.

Insert Special Characters

The backslash (\) is used to insert apostrophes, new lines, quotes, and other special characters into a text string.
Look at the following JavaScript code:
var txt="We are the so-called "Shibashish" from the north.";
document.write(txt);
In JavaScript, a string is started and stopped with either single or double quotes. This means that the string above will be chopped to: We are the so-called
To solve this problem, you must place a backslash (\) before each double quote in "shibashish". This turns each double quote into a string literal:
var txt="We are the so-called \"shibashish\" from the north.";
document.write(txt);
JavaScript will now output the proper text string: We are the so-called "shibashish" from the north.
The table below lists other special characters that can be added to a text string with the backslash sign:
Code Outputs
\' single quote
\" double quote
\\ backslash
\n new line
\r carriage return
\t tab
\b backspace

\f

Thanks
Shibashish mohanty
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